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إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:42 pm

إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض





يستخدم
الجيش الاسرائيل عدد كبير من الأسلحة المحرمة دوليا والتي
تترك اثر على
السكان وتؤثر في البيئة المحيطة بشكل عام وعلى مدا طويل وهذا مثال على ذالك الفسفور الأبيض واليكم بعض المقالات
التي تشرح عنة وعن استخدامه وأثرة

http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%88%D8%B1_%D8%A3%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B6

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_phosphorus_(weapon)‎‎





تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:43 pm

فسفور أبيض



من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة



اذهب إلى: تصفح, ابحث



جزيء الفسفور الأبيض يتكون من أربع ذرات فسفور





الفسفور الأبيض عبارة عن مادة شمعية شفافة وبيضاء ومائلة
للاصفرار، وله رائحة تشبه رائحة الثوم، وهو يتفاعل مع الاكسجين بسرعة
كبيرة منتجا نارا ودخان ابيض كثيف والذي بدوره يتفاعل مع الرطوبة مكوناً
حمض الفوسفوريك، وفى حال تعرض منطقة ما بالتلوث بالفسفور الابيض يترسب في
التربة او قاع الانهار والبحار او حتى على اجسام الاسماك، وعند تعرض جسم
الانسان للفسفور الابيض يحترق الجلد واللحم فلا يتبقى الا العظم.
اثار الفيلم الوثائقى الذى عرضتة قناة ر.أ.ى الايطالية بعنوان "الفلوجة
المذبحة الخفية" جدلا واسعا ، حيث تضمن الفيلم ادلة دامغة على استخدام
القوات الأمريكية الفسفور الابيض في هجومها على الفلوجة.
وجاء الفيلم مدعوما بصور للضحايا وشهادات للجنود الأمريكيين تثبت استخدام القوات الأمريكية هذا السلاح الحارق.
وعلى الرغم من ان القوات الأمريكية قد صنفت الفسفور الابيض على انه
سلاح كيماوى، وذلك ابان حرب الخليج الاولى ، فضلا عن اتهامها نظام الرئيس
صدام حسين باستخدامه ضد الاكراد ، الا انها استخدمته في قصفها للفلوجة.
وكانت الولايات المتحدة من المشاركين في اتفاقية عام 1980 التى تحرم
استخدام الفسفور الابيض كسلاح حارق ضد السكان المدنيين او حتى ضد الاعداء
في المناطق التى يقطن بها مدنيين.
وبجانب استخدامه في العمليات العسكرية في الذخيرة واخفاء تحركات الجيش
والاهداف المهمة، يستخدم ايضا لانتاج الاحماض الفسفورية وبعض الكيماويات
الاخرى.
وفى الماضى كانت تستخدم كمية صغيرة من الفسفور الابيض في المبيدات الحشرية والالعاب النارية.
وفى حال تعرض منطقة ما بالتلوث بالفسفور الابيض يترسب في التربة او قاع الانهار والبحار او حتى على اجسام الاسماك.
ونتيجة لذلك قد يتعرض الانسان للضرر نتيجة اكله اسماك مترسب عليها
الفسفور الابيض او العوم في المياه الملوثة به،أو لمس تربة مترسب عليها
الفسفور الابيض.
وتنفس الفسفور الابيض لفترة قصيرة ربما يسبب السعال وتهيج القصبة الهوائية والرئة.
اما تنفسه لفترة طويلة فيسبب جروح في الفم وكسر عظمة الفك.
وعند تعرض جسم الانسان للفسفور الابيض يحترق الجلد والعظم فلا يتبقى الا العظم. كما يسبب اضرارا بالغة للكبد والقلب والكلى.
وتعرض المدنيين في الفلوجة لويلات هذا السلاح من خلال الهجوم الذى شنته
الولايات المتحدة على المدينة في نوفمبر من عام 2004 واحترقت اجساد
الضحايا من الرجال والنساء والاطفال على السواء، ولم يبق منها الا العظم.
وهو ما اعتبر دليلاً على استخدام الولايات المتحدة لهذا السلاح المحرم
دوليا.
ووصف أحد الجنود الأمريكيين المشاركين في الهجوم على الفلوجة الفسفور
الابيض واثره على المدنيين من اهالى الفلوجة فقال" الفسفور الابيض يحرق
الاجساد،بل في الواقع يذيب اللحم حتى ينكشف العظم.رأيت جثثا محترقة لنساء
واطفال.الفسفور ينفجر ويولد سحابة من الدخان".
ويعبر هذه الوصف على اثر الدمار الذى يلحق بالانسان عند تعرضه للفسفور
الابيض وما تعرض له المدنيين العزل من اهالى الفلوجة من مذبحة بشعة .
واستمرت هذه الكارثة مرة اخرى حيث قامت فوات الاحتلال الإسرائيلي باستخدم
الفسفور الابيض مرة اخرى ضد المدنيين في قطاع غزة الفلسطيني بحربها بنهاية
عام 2008 وبداية عام 2009 حيث استخدم ضد منطقة سكانية مدينة تعد أكثر
المناطق كثافة سكانية في العالم .
يستخدم الفسفور الابيض بكثرة في ذخائر الدخان ويرمز له بالرمز WP
ولتدمير مثل هذا النوع من الذخائر يجب ان تكون حشوة التدمير اسفل الذخيرة
اذا كانت غير مطلوقة حتى تتناثر مادة الفسفور الابيض في الهواء لتحترق
بشكل كامل[1]
والاكثر من ذلك فليس هناك أي اتفاقية تمنع استخدام الفسفور الأبيض ضد
أهداف عسكرية ، فالمادة الثالثة من اتفاقية جنيف والتي تتعلق بأسلحة
تقليدية معينة تحظر استخدام الأسلحة الحارقة ضد الأهداف المدنية كما تحد
من استخدام تلك الأنواع ضد الأهداف العسكرية المتاخمة لمواقع تركز
المدنيين ، إلا ان ذلك ينطبق على القنابل التي تسقطها الطائرات وليست تلك
المقذوفة من المدافع كما حدث في الفلوجة. وعلى أية حال فإن الولايات
المتحدة لم توقع على معاهدة تلزمها بهذه المادة. وهناك ادعاء آخر أثير بأن
الفسفور الأبيض يحرم استخدامه من الناحية القانونية وهو غاز سام ، وهناك
من ذكر أن مواقع حكومية اميركية تحتوي على وثائق تؤكد ان الفسفور الأبيض
هو سلاح كيميائي غير أن هذه الادعاءات لم تثبت صحتها.
ولأن خطورة الفسفور الأبيض هي في اشتعاله بشدة عند تعرضه للهواء، فإنه
يمكن التعامل معه بأمان من تحت الماء. والفسفور الأبيض قابل للذوبان في
الوقود والبنزين، أما ذوبانه في الماء فهو محدود.


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:44 pm

الوقاية والإسعاف الأولي



[عدل] الوقاية [2]



  • الحبيبات المنصهرة من هذه المادة قد تنغمس في جلد الضحية منتجة حروقاً
    متعددة وعميقة وبأحجام مختلفة، ومن المهم أن نعلم هنا أن هذه الحبيبات
    ستستمر في الاشتعال مالم يتم عزلها عن أكسجين الهواء عبر غمرها بالماء أو
    عزلها عن الهواء باستخدام الوحل أو قماش مبلول. من الضروري جداً في هذه
    الحالة إبقاء جزيئات الفسفور معزولة عن الهواء طيلة الوقت حتى لا تشتعل
    وذلك إلى أن تتم إزالتها.
  • يمكن إزالة الفسفور الملتصق بالجلد باستخدام سكين أو عصا أو عبر حكها بقطعة قماش مبلولة.
  • استخدام الكمامات يساهم في الحماية من دخان الفسفور الأبيض.
  • إذا أصابت هذه المادة الملابس، فيجب خلعها بسرعة قبل وصول المادة إلى الجلد.


[عدل] الإسعاف الأولي [3]



  • عند اندلاع حريق، استخدم رذاذ الماء أو الرمل المبلول ومن الضروري
    الابتعاد عن المواد سريعة الاشتعال. من الجدير بالذكر أن الفسفور الأبيض
    قد يعود للاشتعال تلقائياً بعد إطفاء الحريق.
  • عند الاستنشاق، محاولة استنشاق الهواء النقي والراحة، وقد يلزم عمل تنفس صناعي ثم المراجعة الطبية بأسرع وقت.
  • عند تعرض الجلد، يشطف الجلد بالكثير من الماء، وتزال الملابس المتضررة
    مع استمرار الشطف بالماء بعد ذلك. ويلزم ارتداء قفازات أو نحوه عند عمل
    الإسعاف الأولي. والمراجعة الطبية بأسرع وقت.
  • عند تعرض العين، الشطف بالكثير من الماء لعدة دقائق، وينصح بإزالة
    العدسات اللاصقة إن كان بالإمكان القيام بذلك بسهولة. والمراجعة الطبية
    بأسرع وقت.
  • عند ابتلاع المادة، يجب العمل على التقيؤ عمداً (فقط في الشخص الواعي)
    ويجب ارتداء قفازات عند محاولة التقيء عمداً، وشطف الفم بالماء والراحة.
    والمراجعة الطبية بأسرع وقت.


[عدل] مراجع



  1. ^ http://4flying.com/showthread.php?t=22071
  2. ^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/dod/fm8-9/3ch8.htm
  3. ^ http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc06/icsc0628.htm






تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:45 pm

White phosphorus (weapon)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the military applications of white phosphorus. For more general information, see Allotropes of phosphorus#White phosphorus.

White phosphorus (WP) is a flare- and smoke-producing incendiary weapon,www.faqs.org.470-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[1] or smoke-screening agent, made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus. White phosphorus bombs and shells are incendiary devices, but can also be used as an offensive anti-personnel flame compound capable of causing serious burns or death.[2] The agent is used in bombs,
artillery shells, and mortar shells, short range missiles which burst
into burning flakes of phosphorus upon impact. White phosphorus is
commonly referred to in military jargon
as "WP". The slang term "Willy(ie) Pete" or "Willy(ie) Peter", dating
from the First World War and common at least through the Vietnam era,
is still occasionally heard.
White phosphorus weapons are controversial today because of their
potential use against civilians. While the Chemical Weapons Convention
does not designate WP as a chemical weapon, various unofficial groups
consider it to be one. In recent years, the United States, Israel and
Russia have used white phosphorus in combat.
Its use by the US has resulted in considerable controversy (see white phosphorus use in Iraq). Initial field reports from Iraq referred to white phosphorus use against insurgents,[3] but its use was officially denied until November, 2005,[4] when the Pentagon admitted[5] to the use of white phosphorus while stating that its use for producing obscuring smoke is legal and does not violate the Chemical Weapons Convention.[6]
A Pentagon spokesman has also admitted that WP "was used as an
incendiary weapon against enemy combatants", though not against
civilians.[7]


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:46 pm

History



A USAF airman inspects 2.75 inch white phosphorus marking rockets in Osan Air Base, Republic of Korea, 1996.





WP is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution of WP in carbon disulfide.
When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the WP would burst into flames,
and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes.
This mixture was known as "Fenian fire" and allegedly was used by
disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destruction
of shabby sleeping quarters.
In 1916, during an intense ideological struggle over conscription for the First World War, twelve members of the I.W.W.,
a radical union of workers who openly opposed conscription, were
arrested and convicted for using or plotting to use incendiary
materials, including phosphorus. It is believed that eight or nine men
in this group, known as the Sydney Twelve, had been victims of a police frameup.[8] Most were released in 1920 after an inquiry.

[edit] World War I and II


The British Army introduced the first factory-built WP grenades in
late 1916. In World War II, white phosphorus mortar bombs, shells,
rockets and grenades were used extensively by American, Commonwealth,
and to a lesser extent Japanese forces, in both smoke-generating and
antipersonnel roles. In 1940, when the invasion of Britain seemed
imminent, the phosphorus firm of Albright and Wilson
suggested that the British government use a material similar to Fenian
fire in several expedient incendiary weapons. The only one fielded was
the Grenade, No. 76 or Special Incendiary Phosphorus grenade, which consisted of a glass bottle filled with a mixture similar to Fenian fire, plus some latex (c.f. Molotov cocktail, Greek fire).
It came in two versions, one with a red cap intended to be thrown by
hand, and a slightly stronger bottle with a green cap, intended to be
launched from the Northover projector (a crude 2.5 inch blackpowder grenade launcher). Instructions on each crate of SIP grenades included the observations, inter alia:
Store bombs (preferably in cases) in cool places, under water if possible.Stringent precautions must be taken to avoid cracking bombs during handling.
It was generally regarded as overly dangerous to its own operators.
At the start of the Normandy campaign, 20% of American 81 mm mortar
rounds were WP. At least five American Medal of Honor citations mention
their recipients using white phosphorus grenades to clear enemy
positions. In the 1944 liberation of Cherbourg alone, a single U.S. mortar battalion, the 87th, fired 11,899 white phosphorus rounds into the city.
The U.S. Army and Marines used WP shells in 4.2-inch chemical
mortars. WP was widely credited by Allied soldiers for breaking up
German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop
concentrations during the latter part of the war. American servicemen
in the Pacific and otherwise (to this day) were known to call the
thrown bottles "Willie Pete" grenades. The origin of the term has been
thought to be derived from the British military's phonetic alphabet.
Incendiary bombs were used extensively by the German, British and US
air forces against civilian populations and targets of military
significance in civilian areas (London, Hamburg, Dresden, Area bombing
etc). Late in the war, some of these bombs used white phosphorus (about
1-200 grams) in place of magnesium as the igniter for their flammable
mixtures. The use of incendiary weapons against civilians was banned
(by signatory countries) in the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Protocol III. The USA has signed Articles I and II, but not Protocols III, IV, and V.


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:46 pm

Others



A USAF Security Police Squadron member packs an 81 mm white phosphorus smoke-screen mortar round during weapons training, 1980.





WP munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in Chechnya. According to GlobalSecurity.org, "In the December 1994 battle for Grozny in Chechnya, every fourth or fifth Russian artillery or mortar round fired was a smoke or white phosphorus round."
In Iraq, the Saddam Hussein regime used white phosphorus, as well as chemical weapons that are scheduled in the Chemical Weapons Convention, in the Halabja poison gas attack during the Iran–Iraq War in 1988, according to the ANSA news agency.[9]
Another news report[10] said "US intelligence" called WP a chemical weapon in a declassified Pentagon report from February 1991:
"Iraqi forces loyal to President Saddam may have possibly used white phosphorus chemical weapons against Kurdish rebels and the populace in Erbil and Dohuk. The WP chemical was delivered by artillery rounds and helicopter gunships."
but the actual declassified document[11]
contains the words "WARNING: (U) THIS IS AN INFORMATION REPORT, NOT
FINALLY EVALUATED INTELLIGENCE." By "information report", the document
states it is not a reviewed product of the intelligence community.
Further, the document's addressee codes all start with the letter R,
which means that they are in the military operational community, not
the Y-community that is reserved for the intelligence community
(Chapter IV, Section 11).[12]

[edit] Use in Iraq (2004)


Main article: White phosphorus use in Iraq


Use of WP against enemy areas in Fallujah were reported as early as April 2004:
The boom kicked dust around the pit as they ran through the drill
again and again, sending a mixture of burning white phosphorus and high
explosives they call "shake 'n' bake" into a cluster of buildings where
insurgents have been spotted all week.[3] However, an U.S. official release of December 2004 denied any WP use:U.S. forces have used [phosphorus shells] very sparingly in
Fallujah, for illumination purposes. They were fired into the air to
illuminate enemy positions at night, not at enemy fighters.
[13]
This U.S. Department of State website carried an addendum in November 2005, replacing the previous statement with the comment:
We have learned that some of the information we were provided in
the above paragraph is incorrect. White phosphorus shells, which
produce smoke, were used in Fallujah not for illumination but for
screening purposes, i.e., obscuring troop movements and, according to www.army.mil/famag/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">an article in ... Field Artillery magazine[14],
"as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench
lines and spider holes…." The article states that U.S. forces used
white phosphorus rounds to flush out enemy fighters so that they could
then be killed with high explosive rounds.
The specific aspect of use against humans was highlighted[15] after the documentary film Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre by Sigfrido Ranucci was aired on Italy's RaiNews24 and released on the internet.[9] In the film, Giuliana Sgrena quotes city refugees testimonies from Fallujah about the reported danger of weapons effects:
In particular, some women had tried to enter their homes, and they
had found a certain dust spread all over the house. The Americans
themselves had told them to clean the houses with detergents, because
that dust was very dangerous. In fact, they had some effect on their
bodies, leading to some very strange things."
The film also shows U.S. soldiers on film admitting to WP use
against insurgents. U.S. officials continued to deny the use of white
phosphorus for antipersonnel purposes; U.S. ambassador to UK Robert
Holmes Tuttle stated in November 2005, that U.S. forces "do not use
napalm or white phosphorus as weapons".[16]
However, within a week of ambassador Tuttle's statement, on November
15, Pentagon spokesman Lieutenant-Colonel Barry Venable confirmed to
the BBC
that WP had been used as an antipersonnel weapon, and was quoted as
stating: "It has been used as an incendiary weapon against enemy
combatants".[7] In particular,
Venable pointed out that WP was effective against enemy forces in
covered positions that were protected from high explosives. "One
technique is to fire a white phosphorus round into the position because
the combined effects of the fire and smoke—and in some case the terror
brought about by the explosion on the ground—will drive them out of the
holes so that you can kill them with high explosives.[5]
WP use is legal for purposes such as illumination and obscuring smoke, and the Chemical Weapons Convention does not list WP in its schedules of chemical weapons.
The March 2005 edition of the U.S. Army magazine Field Artillery,
contained an article on using white phosphorus as an "effective
munition" for flushing out insurgents during the Fallujah attack of
November 2004:
"WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it
for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a
potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and
spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE (High
Explosive) Rounds. We fired ‘shake and bake’ missions at the
insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out."[17]
On November 30, 2005, General Peter Pace
defended use of WP, declaring that WP munitions were a "legitimate tool
of the military", used to illuminate targets and create smokescreens,
and that there were better weapons for killing people:
it is well within the law of war to use those weapons as they're
being used, for marking and for screening... A bullet goes through skin
even faster than white phosphorus does".[6]
On June 22, 2007 New York Times correspondent Michael R. Gordon
was interviewed on National Public Radio in a story called "Baquba
Residents Displaced by Insurgents" by Melissa Block and Michele Norris.
In this interview, Gordon was asked about civilian casualties in
Baquba, Iraq. He responded by saying "Yeah, there have been civilian
casualties. I was just talking to our photographer and he had seen
people who are hurt by phosphorus shells."[18] The photographer was not identified in the interview and the report was not corroborated.

[edit] 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict


During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict,
Israel stated that it had used phosphorus shells "against military
targets in open ground" in south Lebanon. Israel stated that its use of
the white phosphorus bombs was permitted under international
conventions.[19] According to a Haaretz article, President of Lebanon Émile Lahoud claimed that phosphorus shells were used against civilians in Lebanon.[20] The first Lebanese official complaint about the use of phosphorus came from Information Minister Ghazi Aridi.[21]

[edit] 2008/9 Israel–Gaza conflict


During the late 2008 early 2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, The Times alleged that M825A1 WP shells were used in bombardments on Gaza.[22][23][24] The Times published a photograph to support its claim. An Israeli Defence Forces spokesperson stated that the M825A1 shells being used were empty, containing neither explosives nor white phosphorus.[22]
Marc Garlasco, a senior military analyst at Human Rights Watch
called for Israel to desist using the controvertial munitions in
densely populated civilian areas stating "Clearly it is [white
phosphorus], we can tell by the explosions and the tendrils that go
down [and] the fires that were burning". [25]


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:55 pm

Smoke-screening properties



USS Alabama hit by a white phosphorus bomb in bombing tests by General Billy Mitchell, September 1921.





Weight-for-weight, phosphorus is the most effective smoke-screening agent known, for two reasons: first, it absorbs most of the screening mass from the surrounding atmosphere and secondly, the smoke particles are an aerosol, a mist of liquid droplets which are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been likened to three dimensional
textured privacy glass—the smoke cloud does not simply obstruct an
image, but thoroughly scrambles both visual and infrared radiation.
When phosphorus burns in air, it first forms phosphorus pentoxide (which exists as tetraphosphorus decoxide except at very high temperatures):
P4 + 5 O2 → P4O10
However phosphorus pentoxide is extremely hygroscopic and quickly absorbs even minute traces of moisture to form liquid droplets of phosphoric acid:
P4O10 + 6 H2O → 4 H3PO4 (also forms polyphosphoric acids such as pyrophosphoric acid, H4P2O7)
Since an atom of phosphorus has an atomic mass of 31 but a molecule of phosphoric acid has a molecular mass
of 98, the cloud is already 68% by mass derived from the atmosphere
(i.e. 3.2 kilograms of smoke for every kilogram of WP you started
with); however, it may absorb more because phosphoric acid and its
variants are hygroscopic.
Given time, the droplets will continue to absorb more water, growing
larger and more dilute until they reach equilibrium with the local
water vapour pressure.
In practice, the droplets quickly reach a range of sizes suitable for
scattering visible light and then start to dissipate from wind or
convection.
Because of the great weight efficiency of WP smoke, it is
particularly suited for applications where weight is highly restricted,
such as hand grenades and mortar
bombs. An additional advantage for hand smoke grenades—which are more
likely to be used in an emergency—is that the WP smoke clouds form in a
fraction of a second. Because WP is also pyrophoric,
most munitions of this type have a simple burster charge to split open
the casing and spray fragments of WP through the air, where they ignite
spontaneously and leave a trail of rapidly thickening smoke behind each
particle. The appearance of this cloud forming is easily recognised;
one sees a shower of burning particles spraying outward, followed
closely by distinctive streamers of white smoke, which rapidly coalesce
into a fluffy, very pure white cloud (unless illuminated by a coloured
light source).
Various disadvantages of WP are discussed below, but one which is
particular to smoke-screening is "pillaring". Because the WP smoke is
formed from fairly hot combustion, the gasses in the cloud are hot, and
tend to rise. Consequently the smoke screen tends to rise off the
ground relatively quickly and form aerial "pillars" of smoke which are
of little use for screening. Tactically this may be counteracted by
using WP to get a screen quickly, but then following up with emission
type screening agents for a more persistent screen. Some countries have
begun using red phosphorus instead. Red phosphorus ("RP") burns cooler
than WP and eliminates a few other disadvantages as well, but offers
exactly the same weight efficiency. Other approaches include WP soaked
felt pads (which also burn more slowly, and pose a reduced risk of
incendiarism) and PWP, or plasticised white phosphorus.


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:57 pm

Effects on humans


White phosphorus can cause injuries and death in three ways: by
burning deep into tissue, by being inhaled as a smoke, and by being
ingested. Extensive exposure in any way is fatal.

[edit] Effects of exposure to WP weapons


Incandescent particles of WP cast off by a WP weapon's initial
explosion can produce extensive, deep (second and third degree), burns.
Phosphorus burns carry a greater risk of mortality than other forms of
burns due to the absorption of phosphorus into the body through the
burned area, resulting in liver, heart and kidney damage, and in some
cases multi-organ failure.[26]
These weapons are particularly dangerous to exposed people because
white phosphorus continues to burn unless deprived of oxygen or until
it is completely consumed. In some cases, burns are limited to areas of
exposed skin because the smaller WP particles do not burn completely
through personal clothing before being consumed. According to GlobalSecurity.org, quoted by The Guardian, "White phosphorus results in painful chemical burn injuries"www.globalsecurity.org.472-26" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[27] .

[edit] Exposure and inhalation of smoke


Burning WP produces a hot, dense white smoke. Most forms of smoke
are not hazardous in the kinds of concentrations produced by a
battlefield smoke shell. Exposure to heavy smoke concentrations of any
kind for an extended period (particularly if near the source of
emission) does have the potential to cause illness or even death.
WP smoke irritates the eyes and nose in moderate concentrations.
With intense exposures, a very explosive cough may occur. However, no
recorded casualties from the effects of WP smoke alone have occurred in
combat operations and to date there are no confirmed deaths resulting
from exposure to phosphorus smoke.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has set an
acute inhalation Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for white phosphorus smoke of
0.02 mg/m³, the same as fuel oil fumes. By contrast, the chemical
weapon mustard gas is 30 times more potent: 0.0007 mg/m³ [28].

[edit] Oral ingestion


The accepted lethal dose when white phosphorus is ingested orally is
1 mg per kg of body weight, although the ingestion of as little as 15
mg has resulted in death.[29] It may also cause liver, heart or kidney damage.[26]
There are reports of individuals with a history of oral ingestion who
have passed phosphorus-laden stool ("smoking stool syndrome")[29]


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:58 pm

Arms control status and military regulations


Under the Geneva Conventions, which are the statutory implementation of the customary laws of war, it is forbidden to deliberately attack civilians
or bona-fide civilian structures, dwellings, and places used for
civilian purposes, such as hospitals, religious structures, and
schools. It therefore follows that the use of any form of weapon to
deliberately attack civilians or deliberately attack unquestionably
civilian targets unoccupied by military forces is a war crime, and in violation of the laws of war.
Unfortunately, military forces often enter civilian areas, or
military activities take place in civilian areas, and therefore combat
between military forces often takes place in civilian areas. When this
occurs, all military forces who obey the law of war must and will take
care to avoid unnecessary destruction of the area; however, civilians
may be unintentionally harmed or killed in the midst of combat,
including by all weapons employed by both sides. The law of war
recognizes this, and only regards as criminal those deaths or injuries
to civilians in a war zone that are caused by deliberate (i.e. not
accidental) attacks on civilians by military forces, or by grossly
disproportionate use of force, in excess of what military necessity provides for, against a military objective in close proximity to civilians or civilian buildings.
Article 1 of Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
defines an incendiary weapon as 'any weapon or munition which is
primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to
persons through the action of flame, heat, or combination thereof,
produced by a chemical reaction of a substance delivered on the
target'. The same protocol also prohibits the use of incendiary weapons
against civilians (already forbidden by the Geneva Conventions) or in
civilian areas. This protocol is only binding upon those who have
signed it; the United States, along with the other major military
powers, has not signed or agreed to Protocol III and is not bound by it.
However, the use against military targets outside civilian areas is
not explicitly banned by any treaty. There is a debate on whether white
phosphorus should be considered a chemical weapon and thus be outlawed
by the Chemical Weapons Convention
(CWC) which went into effect in April 1997. The convention is meant to
prohibit weapons that are "dependent on the use of the toxic properties
of chemicals as a method of warfare" (Article II, Definitions, 9,
"Purposes not Prohibited" c.).
The convention defines a "toxic chemical" as a chemical "which
through its chemical action on life processes can cause death,
temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals" (CWC,
II). An annex lists chemicals that fall under this definition and WP is
not listed in the Schedules of chemical weapons or precursors.[30]
In an 2005 interview with RAI, Peter Kaiser, spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
(an organization overseeing the CWC and reporting directly to the UN
General Assembly), questioned whether the weapon should fall under the
convention's provisions:
No it's not forbidden by the CWC if it is used within the context
of a military application which does not require or does not intend to
use the toxic properties of white phosphorus. White phosphorus is
normally used to produce smoke, to camouflage movement.If that is the purpose for which the white phosphorus is used, then that is considered under the convention legitimate use.If on the other hand the toxic properties of white phosphorus are
specifically intended to be used as a weapon, that of course is
prohibited, because the way the convention is structured or the way it
is in fact applied, any chemicals used against humans or animals that
cause harm or death through the toxic properties of the chemical are
considered chemical weapons".[4]
Kaiser was a staff spokesman for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[31]
The OPCW, using member votes, creates Schedules of chemical weapons or
dual-use chemicals of concern and white phosphorus is not in any of
these schedules.
The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, not the Chemical
Weapons Convention, goes on, in its Protocol III, to prohibit the use
of all air-delivered incendiary weapons against civilian populations,
or for indiscriminate incendiary attacks against military forces
co-located with civilians.www.globalsecurity.org.476-31" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[32]
However, that protocol also specifically excludes weapons whose
incendiary effects are secondary, such as smoke grenades. This has
often been read as excluding white phosphorus munitions from this
protocol, as well. Several countries, including the United States and
Israel, are not signatories to Protocol III.[33]
The legal position however, is not the only consideration in any war.[clarification needed]
For instance, concerning the U.S. use of WP in Iraq, the British
Liberal Democrat foreign affairs spokesman Sir Menzies Campbell, said
"The use of this weapon may technically have been legal, but its
effects are such that it will hand a propaganda victory to the
insurgency. The denial of use followed by the admission will simply
convince the doubters that there was something to hide".[34]

[edit] Military regulations



An OV-10 Bronco aircraft fires a white phosphorus smoke rocket to mark a ground target, 1984.





Within the US Army, there appears to be conflicting advice on the
use of WP against humans. According to the field manual on the Rule of
Land Warfare, "The use of weapons which employ fire, such as tracer
ammunition, flamethrowers, napalm and other incendiary agents, against
targets requiring their use is not violative of international law."www.globalsecurity.org.478-34" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[35] However, the ST 100-3 Battle Book, a student text published by the US Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth states that "It is against the law of land warfare to employ WP against personnel targets."www.fas.org.478-35" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">[36] At the same time, other field manuals discuss the use of white phosphorus against personnel.[37]


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار See also

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 10:59 pm

See also




[edit] References


Israel
fires artillery shells into Gaza



  1. www.faqs.org.470_0-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">^ "Pyrotechnics, Explosives,
    & Fireworks
    ". Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  2. ^ "www.apgea.army.mil/dts/docs/detwp.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">DET.WP"
    (PDF). Retrieved on December 4,
    2005.
  3. ^ a b Darrin Mortenson (2004-04-10).
    "Violence
    subsides for Marines in Fallujah
    ". North
    County Times. Retrieved on
    2007-04-04.
  4. ^ a b Paul Reynolds (2005-11-16),
    BBC NEWS :
    Americas : White phosphorus: weapon on the edge
    , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4442988.stm,
    retrieved on 4 April 2007
  5. ^ a b Andrew Buncombe and Solomon Hughes
    (2005-11-15).
    "The
    fog of war: white phosphorus, Fallujah and some burning questions
    ".
    The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  6. ^ a b BBC NEWS: US general
    defends phosphorus use
    , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4483690.stm
  7. ^ a b "US used white
    phosphorus in Iraq (Lt Col Barry Venable)
    ", BBC (November 16, 2005). Retrieved
    on 4 April 2007.
  8. ^ Ian Turner, Sydney's
    Burning - The real conspiracy, (1969). Sydney,:
    Alpha Books,. http://members.optushome.com.au/spainter/Turner.html.
    Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  9. ^ a b Sigfrido Ranucci. "Fallujah,
    The Hidden Massacre (see the video)
    ". Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  10. ^ Peter Popham and Anne Penketh (2005-11-23).
    "US
    intelligence classified white phosphorus as 'chemical weapon'".
    Retrieved on 7 April 2007.
  11. ^ Joint Staff (1991). "Possible
    Use of Phosphorus Chemical Weapons by Iraq in Kurdish Areas along the
    Iraqi-Turkish-Iranian Borders; and Current Situation of Kurdish Resistance
    and Refugees
    ".
  12. ^ Joint Staff (2
    November 1998). "Manual
    for Employing Joint Tactical Communications
    ". Joint
    Communications Security
    . Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  13. ^ "Illegal
    Weapons in Fallujah - US Department of State
    " (2004-12-09
    updated 2005-11-10).
    Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  14. ^ Cobb, Captain James T.; First Lieutenant Christopher A.
    LaCour, Sergeant First Class William H. Hight (March-April 2005). "www.army.mil/famag/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">TF
    2-2 IN FSE AAR: Indirect Fires in the Battle of Fallujah" (PDF). Field
    Artillery magazine,
    : 24–30. www.army.mil/famag/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://sill-www.army.mil/famag/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf.
    Retrieved on 25 September 2007.
  15. ^ "US 'uses
    incendiary arms' in Iraq
    ", BBC (November 8, 2005).
  16. ^ name="news.bbc.co.uk.nov30"
  17. ^ "www.army.mil/FAMAG/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">The
    Fight for Fallujah (Nov 2004)" (PDF), Field Artillery (magazine):
    24–46, March-April 2005, www.army.mil/FAMAG/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://sill-www.army.mil/FAMAG/2005/MAR_APR_2005/PAGE24-30.pdf
  18. ^ NPR. "Baquba
    Residents Displaced by Insurgents (Jun 2007)
    ". Retrieved on July 20, 2007.
  19. ^ "Israel admits
    phosphorus bombing
    ", BBC (22 October
    2006). Retrieved on 24
    October 2006.
  20. ^ "Israel admits
    using phosphorus bombs during war Lebanon
    ", Haaretz (2006-10-22).
    Retrieved on 4 April 2007.
  21. ^ Jansen, Jaime (July
    17, 2006), "Lebanon
    claims Israel
    using banned weapons against civilians", Paper Chase Newsburst,
    Jurist Legal News & Research
    (University of Pittsburgh School of
    Law)
  22. ^ a b Evans, Michael; Sheera Frenkel
    (2009-01-08). "Gaza
    victims' burns increase concern over phosphorus
    ", The Times.
    Retrieved on 10 January 2009.
  23. ^ "White
    Phosphorus (WP)
    ", Globalsecurity.org (2009-01-05). Retrieved on
    10 January 2009.
  24. ^ "le
    =Photo shows 'Willie Pete' went to Gaza
    ", Press TV
    (2009-01-10). Retrieved on 10
    January 2009.
  25. ^ http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/01/2009110181945232797.html
  26. ^ a b Agency for Toxic Substances and
    Disease Registry (ATSDR), "White
    Phosphorus: Health Effects"
    (PDF), Toxicological Profile
    Information Sheet
    , http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp103-c2.pdf
  27. www.globalsecurity.org.472_26-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">^ "White
    Phosphorus (WP) (Global Security.org)
    ". Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  28. ^ ATSDR - Minimal Risk Levels for
    Hazardous Substances (MRLs)
    , http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
  29. ^ a b Lisandro Irizarry, MD, MPH, FAAEM,
    eMedicine - CBRNE -
    Incendiary Agents, White Phosphorus
    , http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic918.htm
  30. ^ Organisation for the Prohibitions of Chemical Weapons ([dead link]Scholar
    search
    ), Schedules
    of Chemicals
    , http://www.opcw.org/html/db/cwc/eng/cwc_annex_on_chemicals.html#b
  31. ^ Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical
    Weapons (OPCW)
    , http://www.opcw.org/, retrieved on 25 September 2007
  32. www.globalsecurity.org.476_31-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">^ "Protocol
    III - Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
    ". Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  33. ^ Charter, David; Evans, Michael; Beeston, Richard (17 November 2005), "Phosphorus
    was used for Fallujah bombs, admits US
    ", The Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,7374-1875728,00.html
  34. ^ "Incendiary
    weapons: The big white lie
    ", The Independent (November 17, 2005).
  35. www.globalsecurity.org.478_34-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">^ "FM27-10 ::
    Rule of Land Warfare (GlobalSecurity.org)
    ". Retrieved on December 12, 2005.
  36. www.fas.org.478_35-0" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">^ "5sect3".
    Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  37. ^ "FM
    3-06.11 Appendix F
    ". Retrieved on December 12, 2005.


تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

المدار رد: إسرائيل تستخدم الفسفور الابيض

مُساهمة من طرف  في الأحد 11 يناير 2009, 11:00 pm



تاريخ التسجيل : 01/01/1970

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة


 
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